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KTU B.Tech S3 Syllabus Biomedical Engineering

KTU B.Tech S3 Syllabus Boimedical Engineering

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KTU B.Tech S3 Syllabus Biomedical Engineering for
BM201: BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCES FOR ENGINEERS
MODULE I

Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology: definition & relationship of structure & function. Functional organization of body – cells, tissues, organs & systems – Types. Concept of homeostasis – intracellular & extracellular fluids. Homeostatic control systems – negative & positive feedback and feed forward mechanisms.

Cell: Basic structure, organelles & their functions – types. Cell membrane – structure, transport across cell membranes – passive diffusion – Fick’s law – electrochemical gradient – osmosis – facilitated diffusion – active transport – Na + – K + , Ca2+ pumps – Counter & co -transport. Membrane Potential: Resting membrane potential – Action Potential (concepts only).

MODULE II

Nervous System: Organization, Neurons – structure – types . Central nervous system: Overview, Cerebrum – Cerebral cortex – General organization – motor, sensory, language & association areas – major functions. Basal ganglia, Thalamus & Hypothalamus – functions. Introduction to EEG & EP.

Limbic system – components & basic functions. Learning & Memory: Plasticity – short term & long term memory – comparison – long term potentiation.

Cerebellum, Brain Stem – basic structure & functions, Spinal cord – nerves, spinal reflex.

FIRST INTERNAL EXAM

MODULE III

Peripheral nervous system: Efferent & afferent division. Special senses – organs of vision, hearing & equilibrium, taste and smell –structure & basic mechanisms. Visual pathway and processing. Autonomic nervous system: Sympathetic & Parasympathetic.

Muscular System: Basic structure & mechanism of contraction of skeletal, cardiac & smooth muscles .

Skeletal system: Bones – Basic structure & composition – classification of bones & joints in human body.

MODULE IV

Cardiovascular System: Heart – Anatomy – location – pump – valves – major arteries & veins – cardiac muscle – electrical activity – pacemaker – normal & ectopic – cardiac action potential – spread – cardiac cycle. ECG – origin, waveform–cardiac rhythm & rate – normal & abnormal, myocardial ischemia & infarction, atherosclerosis – definitions. Heart sounds & murmurs. Cardiac output – stroke volume.

Systemic & Pulmonary circulation – blood flow – pressure 15% gradient – vascular resistance – Poiseulle’s law – vascular tree – blood pressure – systolic & diastolic – hyper & hypotension mean arterial pressure. Lymphatic system – functions.

Blood: Components – plasma – hematocrit – plasma proteins – erythrocytes – hemoglobin – anemia – blood typing – transfusion reaction – universal donor & acceptor – leukocytes – functions & types – platelets – blood clotting.

SECOND INTERNAL EXAM

MODULE V

Respiratory System: Components & anatomy .

Respiratory mechanics – respiratory cycle – inspiration & expiration mechanisms – airway resistance – pulmonary compliance & elastic recoil – pulmonary surfactants – lung volumes & capacities – spirograms – pulmonary & alveolar ventilation. Gas exchange – partial pressure gradients

Gas transport – % Hb saturation – oxygen – Hb dissociation curve. Abnormal arterial partial pressures, respiratory acidosis & alkalosis, apnea & dyspnea.

MODULE VI

Urinary System: Components & anatomy.

Kidneys – functions, anatomy & basic processes– nephron – types – components. Basic renal processes – basics of glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption & secretion – urine excretion & plasma clearance – micturition.

Body fluids – fluid balance – acid-base balance.

END SEMESTER EXAM

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