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Solved University QuestionPaper- Design & Engineering May/June 2016

Solved University QuestionPaper- Design & Engineering May/June 2016

SOLUTIONS

 1.   Tires

Handle grip

Brake cable

Brake shoe

Pedal

Lights

Basket (optional)

        Sketch  I  Bicycle (optional)

Sketch 2. Handle Grip

 

 

2.       Modular design, or “modularity in design”, is a design approach that subdivides a system into smaller parts called modules or skids, which can be independently created and then used in different systems. -A modular system can be characterized by functional partitioning into discrete scalable, reusable modules, rigorous use of well-defined modular interfaces, and making use of industry standards for interfaces.

i) In an umbrella ‘modular design consists of the following modules detailed on the sketch

 

Sketch 3. Modular sketch of an umbrella

Each of the modules ( femule , open end, cap, top notch, tube , rib, stretcher, top Spring, centre ball spring, bottom spring ,handle) can be replaced accordingly for a new design. As the number of modules is large the design is a complex one,

ii) In an Ink pen the modules e used are comparatively less.

Sketch 4 INK Pen Modules

 Sketch 5 Ink Reservoir Types

Ink pen consist of basically 4 modules namely cap, nib, barrel, ink Reservoir. The Ink Reservoir  can be various types. The type that are in use are Piston converter, Cartridge and Ink Bladder.

 

3.      The Interesting Aspects of the chair are as follows.

Similar tubes are used for making the frame of the chair One tube constitutes the handle and front leg and another makes the back frame and the back leg.

Similar operations are required for bending of the tubes into the required shape. Minimum number of parts are required for the chair.

Solved University QuestionPaper- Design & Engineering

The different parts used for the chair are as follows

User-centered design (UCD) is a framework of processes (including interfaces and technologies) in which the needs, wants, and limitations of end users of a product, service or process are given extensive attention at each stage of the design process. User-centered design can be characterized as a multi- stage problem solving process that not only requires designers to analyze and foresee how users are likely to use a product, but also to test the validity of their assumptions with regard to user behavior in real world tests with actual users at each stage of the – process. The questionnaire for UCD of an automobile is as follows. ‘

Which among the following features you would like to included in your automobile?

a) ABS b) Front and rear airbags c) Cruise control (d)Rain sense wipers

What type of seat cover you need in your automobile?

a)Full leather b) Polymer mix with leather c) Full plastic

Expected boot capacity for your vehicle?

A )220 liters b) 250 liters c)280 liters d)300 liters e)320 liters

would you like to include a Standard variant music system as a complementary feature in your automobile?

a)Yes b) No

Are you ready to pay an extra amount for better mileage?

a) Yes (b) No

How many no of rear ac vents needed for your vehicle?-

a) Not needed b) c)2

5.           Value engineering is a systematic method to improve the value of goods or products and services by using an examination of function. Value, as defined, is the ratio of function to cost. Value can therefore be increased by either improving the function or reducing the cost. .It is a primary tenet of value engineering that basic functions be preserved and not be reduced as’ a consequence of pursuing value improvements. Due to the very Short life spans however which is often a result of this value engineering technique, planned usage has become associated with Product deterioration and inferior quality.

Sketch 6 Value Engineered product

A common vacuum cleaner (with adjustable length collecting pipes) can be employed for the easy cleaning of dust from the windows, fans and lamp shades. The vacuum cleaner is made u of six essential components: An intake port, which may include a variety of cleaning accessories, an exhaust port, an electric motor, a fan, a porous bag and a housing that contains all the other components. When the vacuum cleaner is turned on, the electric current operates the motor. The motor is attached to the fan, which has angled blades As the fan blades turn, they force air forward, towards the exhaust port. When air particles are driven forward, the density of particles (and therefore the air pressure) increases in front of the fan and decreases behind the fan. The pressure level in the area behind the fan drops below the pressure level outside the vacuum cleaner (the ambient air pressure). This creates suction, a partial vacuum, inside the vacuum cleaner. The ambient air pushes itself into the vacuum cleaner through the intake port because the air pressure inside the vacuum cleaner is lower than the pressure outside. As long as the fan is running and the passageway through the vacuum cleaner remains open, there is a constant stream of air moving through the intake port and out the exhaust port. This stream of air acts just like a stream of water. The moving air particles rub against any loose dust or debris as they move, and if the debris is light enough and – the suction is A strong enough, the friction carries the material through the inside of the vacuum cleaner. As the dirt—filled air makes its way to the exhaust port, it passes through the vacuum-cleaner bag. These bags are made of porous woven material (typically cloth or paper), which acts as an air filter. The tiny holes in the bag are large  enough to let air particles  pass by, but too small for most dirt particles to fit through. Thus, when the air current streams into the bag, all the air moves on through the material, but the dirt and debris collect in the bag. As the length of the collecting pipe can be increased (by pivot or screws) the value for the product can be increased without affecting its performance.

6.      This Screw could be tightened or loosened using the screw driver Now design the head of such a screw that could only be tightened but not loosened by this screw driver .

The design for the head for the screw is as follows;

 

Sketch 7: One directional screw head

Solved University QuestionPaper- Design & Engineering

The head of the screw is designed to be installed with a standard flat-head screw-driver, but the shape of the head is intended to prevent a  one-way screw from being easily removed with a standard flat-head screw-driver. The head will provide grip While tightening. But when it is attempted to remove with the screw driver, the grip for loosening will not be there because of the Curved shape. Thus the screw cannot be loosed with a Standard screw driver.

7.         The concept of green building can be employed in the natural Way of heat removal from rooms. Green building (also b own as green construction or sustainable building) refers to both a Structure and the using of processes that are environmentally – responsible and resource efficient throughout a building’s life-cycle.- Green building design lnvolves finding the balance between home building and the sustainable environment. The technique of passive cooling can be combined with  green building for the effective need. Passive cooling covers all natural processes and techniques of heat dissipation and-modulation without the use of: energy. The techniques for passive cooling-can be grouped in two main

categories: Preventive technique, that aims to provide  protection and/or prevention of external and internal heat gains Modulation and heat d1ss1pation techniques allow the building  store and dissipate heat gain through the transfer of heat from heat sinks to the climate. This technique can be the result of thermal mass or natural cooling.

The preventive techniques include microclimate and Site design, solar control, building form and layout, themed insulation, behavioral and occupancy patterns and internal gain controls. The modulation and heat dissipation techniques rely on natural heat sinks to store and remove the internal heat gains. Examples of natural sinks are night Sky, earth soil, and building mass. Therefore passive cooling techniques that use heat sinks can act to either modulate heat gain with. thermal mass or dissipate heat through natural cooling strategies.

Thermal mass – Heat gain modulation of an indoor space can be achieved by the proper use of the building’s thermal mass as a heat sink._ The thermal mass will absorb and store heat during daytime hours and return it to the .space at a later time. Thermal mass can be coupled with night ventilation natural cooling strategy if the stored heat that will be delivered to the space during the evening/night is not desirable.

Natural cooling – Natural cooling refers to the use of ventilation or natural heat sinks for heat dissipation from indoor Spaces-Natural cooling can be separated into five categories different categories: ventilation, night flushing, radiative cooling, evaporative cooling, and earth coupling.

Another method is ventilation. Ventilation as a natural cooling strategy uses the physical   properties of air to remove heat or provide cooling to occupants, Cross ventilation- The strategy of cross ventilation relies on wind to pass through the building for the purpose of cooling

Cross ventilation requires Openings 0n 2 Sides of the spaces called the inlet and outlet. Stack Ventilation- Cross ventilation is an effective cooling strategy, howeverwind is an unreliable flushing. Night flushlng (also known as night ventilation, night cooling and night purging, and nocturnal convective cooling) is a passive or semi passive cooling strategy that requires increased air movement at night to pre-cool the structural elements of a building

Along with the above techniques, evaporative cooling, earth coupling and radiative cooling can be used for the natural way of cooling. The combination of all the systems mentioned can be  seen in the sketches.

Sketch 8: Design of natural System of heat removal

 

Sketch 9 . Preventing Solar Radiation

 

 

 

 

8.          Everyday a huge traffic move on every road in different places and the huge mass moving With a certain Velocity exerts a  huge amount of force on the road surface  As We now, energy can  neither be created nor can be destroyed; it can be converted  from  one form to the Other’ so the force exerted on road can be converted in to work for running a generator. Thus electricity can be generated. Small systems, named as capsules of size 10cmx10cm each, would be converting the downward force exerted by the automobiles running with a certain velocity, on

A system of several-similar capsule, in to useable electrical energy would be installed below the road surface overlapped by flexible road surface (using appropriate material). The applied force on the capsule is converted into Mechanical energy using crank shaft mechanism. The circular motion of the crank shaft is passed through a speed increasing gearbox to maximize rpm. The next step is converting the mechanical energy into electrical energy (DC) by using the

the generator.Next is linking the output of each capsule  together to an appropriate bus system to maximize the voltage and minimize the ampere. The last step is linking the appropriate number of bus system to Grid System for further electrical distribution.

Parts of The System . _

Road surface’ The entire road surfice is to be flexible matting type (appropriate material to be used)

Each CapSule (10cm X10 Cm In dimension)-

Base Plate (Appropriate alloy of carbon nanotube to be used)

Shaft (connecting the base Plate with the crank shaft

Spring (appropriate number of springs with proper alloy Composition and spring constant as required for the full contraction of the spring by a mass)s

Rollers (for smooth movement of the shaft).

Crank-Shaft (to convert the linear motion to circular motion)

Gear—box (to maximize the rpm of the circular motion transmitted by the crank-shaft).

Dual—Pulley(on the output shaft of the gear-box),

V-belt linked with generator (transmitting the circular motion of the gearbox to the generator) Generator.

 

Solved University QuestionPaper- Design & Engineering May/June 2016

 

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