KTU B.Tech s4 lecture notes for Object Oriented Design & Programming
- Object oriented concepts , Object oriented systems development life cycle.
- Unified Modeling Language UML class diagram Usecase diagram.
- Java Overview: Java virtual machine, data types, operators, control statements, Introduction to Java programming
- Classes fundamentals, objects, methods, constructors, parameter passing, overloading, access control keywords
- Inheritance basics, method overriding, abstract classes, interface. Defining and importing packages.
- Exception handling fundamentals, multiple catch and nested try statements
- Input/Output: files, stream classes, reading console input. Threads: thread model, use of Thread class and Runnable interface, thread synchronization, multithreading.
- String class – basics. Applet basics and methods. Event Handling: delegation event model, event classes, sources, listeners
- Introduction to AWT: working with frames, graphics, color, font. AWT Control fundamentals. Swing overview. Java database connectivity: JDBC overview, creating and executing queries, dynamic queries.
Unit – I
System Development – Object Basics – Development Life Cycle – Methodologies –
Patterns – Frameworks – Unified Approach – UML
System Development (SD) : –
- SD refers to all activities that go into producing an information systems solution. These activities
consist of systems analysis, modeling, design, implementation, testing and maintenance.
- A software development methodology is a series of processes that if followed can lead to the
development of an application.
- According to Niklaus Wirth – A software system is a set of mechanisms for performing certain
action on certain data.
- There are two orthogonal views of the software differs in their primary focus.
1. The traditional approach focuses on the functions of the system and says software as a
collection of programs (or functions) and isolated data.
2. Object oriented systems development centers on the object, which combines data and
functionality i.e., Programs = Algorithms + Data Structures.
Object Oriented System Development : –
- Object oriented systems development is a way to develop software by building self – contained
modules or objects that can be easily replaced, modified and reused.
- In an object–oriented environment, software is a collection of discrete objects that encapsulate their
data as well as the functionality of model real–world events “objects” and emphasizes its
cooperative philosophy by allocating tasks among the objects of the applications.
- A class is an object oriented system carefully delineates between its interface (specifications of
what the class can do) and the implementation of that interface (how the class does what it does).
Need of Object Orientation
An object orientation produces systems that are easier to evolve, more flexible, more
robust, and more reusable than a top – down approach. An object orientation
- Allows higher level of abstraction: Object oriented approach supports abstraction at the object
level. Since objects encapsulate both data (attributes) & functions (methods), they work at a higher
level of abstraction. This makes designing, coding, testing & maintaining the system much
- Provides Seamless transition among different phases of software development: Object oriented
approach, essentially uses the same language to talk about analysis, design, programming and
database design. This seamless approach reduces the level of complexity and redundancy and
makes for clearer, more robust system development.
- Encourage good development techniques: In a properly designed system, the routines and attributes
within a class are held together tightly, the classes will be grouped into subsystems but remain
independently and therefore, changing one class has no impact on other classes and so, the impact
- Promotes of reusability: Objects are reusable because they are modeled directly out of a real –
world problem domain. Here classes are designed, with reuse as a constant background goal. All
the previous functionality remains and can be reused without changed.
Object Basics: –
- Objects are Grouped in Classes : Class is a set of objects that share a common structure and a
common behavior, a single object is simply an instance of a class. A class is a specification of
structure (instance variables), behavior (methods) and inheritance for objects. A method or
behavior of an object is defined by its class.
- Attributes: Object state and properties. Properties represent the state of an object. Often, we refer
to the description of these properties rather than how they are represented in a particular
- Object Behavior and Methods: Behavior denotes the collection of methods that abstractly describes
where an object is capable of doing. Methods encapsulate the behavior of the object, provide
interfaces to an object and hide any of the internal structures and states maintained by the object.
- Objects respond to Messages: Message is the instruction and method is the implementation. An
object understands a message when it can match message to a method that has same name as of it.
- Encapsulation and Information Binding: Information hiding is principle of concealing the internal
data & procedures of an object and providing an interface to each object in such a way as to reveal
as little as possible about its inner workings. Encapsulation protection deals with protection of an
object capsule from other object by means of per–class protection and per–object protection.
- Class Hierarchy: At the top of the class hierarchy are the most general classes & at the bottom are
the most specific. A subclass inherits all of the properties and methods defined in its super class.
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