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KTU B.Tech S4 Lecture Note – CS206 Object Oriented Design and Programming

KTU B.Tech s4 lecture notes for Object Oriented Design & Programming







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Unit – I 
System Development – Object Basics – Development Life Cycle – Methodologies –
Patterns – Frameworks – Unified Approach – UML
System Development (SD) : –

  •  SD refers to all activities that go into producing an information systems solution. These activities
    consist of systems analysis, modeling, design, implementation, testing and maintenance.
  •  A software development methodology is a series of processes that if followed can lead to the
    development of an application.
  • According to Niklaus Wirth – A software system is a set of mechanisms for performing certain
    action on certain data.
  • There are two orthogonal views of the software differs in their primary focus.
    1. The traditional approach focuses on the functions of the system and says software as a
    collection of programs (or functions) and isolated data.
    2. Object oriented systems development centers on the object, which combines data and
    functionality i.e., Programs = Algorithms + Data Structures.
    Object Oriented System Development : –
  •  Object oriented systems development is a way to develop software by building self – contained
    modules or objects that can be easily replaced, modified and reused.
  •  In an object–oriented environment, software is a collection of discrete objects that encapsulate their
    data as well as the functionality of model real–world events “objects” and emphasizes its
    cooperative philosophy by allocating tasks among the objects of the applications.
  • A class is an object oriented system carefully delineates between its interface (specifications of
    what the class can do) and the implementation of that interface (how the class does what it does).
    Need of Object Orientation
    An object orientation produces systems that are easier to evolve, more flexible, more
    robust, and more reusable than a top – down approach. An object orientation
  • Allows higher level of abstraction: Object oriented approach supports abstraction at the object
    level. Since objects encapsulate both data (attributes) & functions (methods), they work at a higher
    level of abstraction. This makes designing, coding, testing & maintaining the system much
  • Provides Seamless transition among different phases of software development: Object oriented
    approach, essentially uses the same language to talk about analysis, design, programming and
    database design. This seamless approach reduces the level of complexity and redundancy and
    makes for clearer, more robust system development.
  • Encourage good development techniques: In a properly designed system, the routines and attributes
    within a class are held together tightly, the classes will be grouped into subsystems but remain
    independently and therefore, changing one class has no impact on other classes and so, the impact
    is minimized.
  • Promotes of reusability: Objects are reusable because they are modeled directly out of a real –
    world problem domain. Here classes are designed, with reuse as a constant background goal. All
    the previous functionality remains and can be reused without changed.
    Object Basics: –
  • Objects are Grouped in Classes : Class is a set of objects that share a common structure and a
    common behavior, a single object is simply an instance of a class. A class is a specification of
    structure (instance variables), behavior (methods) and inheritance for objects. A method or
    behavior of an object is defined by its class.
  • Attributes: Object state and properties. Properties represent the state of an object. Often, we refer
    to the description of these properties rather than how they are represented in a particular
    programming language.
  • Object Behavior and Methods: Behavior denotes the collection of methods that abstractly describes
    where an object is capable of doing. Methods encapsulate the behavior of the object, provide
    interfaces to an object and hide any of the internal structures and states maintained by the object.
  • Objects respond to Messages: Message is the instruction and method is the implementation. An
    object understands a message when it can match message to a method that has same name as of it.
  • Encapsulation and Information Binding: Information hiding is principle of concealing the internal
    data & procedures of an object and providing an interface to each object in such a way as to reveal
    as little as possible about its inner workings. Encapsulation protection deals with protection of an
    object capsule from other object by means of per–class protection and per–object protection.
  • Class Hierarchy: At the top of the class hierarchy are the most general classes & at the bottom are
    the most specific. A subclass inherits all of the properties and methods defined in its super class.

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